Do you Know Algeria ?


 
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 Do you Know Algeria ?

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مُساهمةموضوع: Do you Know Algeria ?    الثلاثاء نوفمبر 08, 2016 2:48 pm

Algeria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



[th]People's Democratic Republic of Algeriaالجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية  (Arabic)"al-Jumhūriyya al-Jazāʾiriyya ad-Dīmuqrāṭiyya ash-Shaʿbiyya"[note 1][/th][th]Official languages[/th][th]National languages[/th][th]Demonym[/th][th]Government[/th][th]History[/th][th]Area[/th][th]Population[/th][th]Currency[/th][th]Time zone[/th][th]Drives on the[/th][th]Calling code[/th][th]Internet TLD[/th]
FlagEmblem
Motto:  بالشّعب وللشّعب  (Arabic)
"By the people and for the people"[1][2]
Anthem: "Kassaman"
"We Pledge"

Capital
and largest city
Algiers
36°42′N 3°13′E
Arabic[3]
Berber
Algerian
Semi-presidential republic
 - PresidentAbdelaziz Bouteflika[4]
 - Prime MinisterAbdelmalek Sellal
 - Berber kingdom of Numidiafrom 202 BC 
 - Roman Republicfrom 46 BC 
 - Vandal Kingdomfrom 430 
 - Rustamid dynastyfrom 767 
 - Zirid dynastyfrom 973 
 - Hammadiddynastyfrom 1014 
 - Abdalwadiddynastyfrom 1235 
 - Ottoman Empire from 1516 
 - French rulefrom 1830 
 - Independence from France3 July 1962 (recognized by France) 
 - Independence from France5 July 1962 (declared by Algeria) 
 - Total2,381,741 km2 (10th)
919,595 sq mi
 - Water (%)negligible
 - 2010 estimate36,423,000[5]
 - 1998 census29,100,867
 - Density14.6/km2 (204th)
37.9/sq mi
GDP (PPP)2010 estimate
 - Total$251.705 billion[6]
 - Per capita$6,965[6]
GDP (nominal)2010 estimate
 - Total$157.759 billion[6]
 - Per capita$4,366[6]
Gini (1995)35.3[7]
medium
HDI (2011) 0.698[8]
medium · 96th
Algerian dinar (DZD)
CET (UTC+01)
right
213
.dzالجزائر.
Modern Standard Arabic is the official language.[9]
Tamazight is spoken by one third of the population and has been recognized as a "national language" by the constitutional amendment since 8 May 2002.[10]Algerian Arabic (or Darja) is the language used by the majority of the population. Although French has no official status, Algeria is the second Francophone country in the world in terms of speakers[11] and French is still widely used in the government, the culture, the media (newspapers) and the education system (since primary school), due to Algeria's colonial history and can be regarded as the de facto co-official language of Algeria. The Kabyle language, the most-spoken Berber language in the country, is taught and is partially co-official (with a few restrictions) in parts ofKabylia.



Algeria on a world map

[ltr]
Algeria (official name: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria) is a country in the Western part of North Africa. The capital city is Algiers. It is the largest country in Africa. The name is from the city of Algiers. It is bordered by theMediterranean Sea in the north, Tunisia in the northeast, Libya in the east, Niger in the southeast, Mauritania and Maliin the southwest, Western Sahara in the west and Morocco in the northwest.

History[change | change source]

Algeria has had people since 10.000 BC. This can be seen in Tassili National Park. By 600-BC, Phoenician were atTipasa. The first Muslim Arabs came to Algeria in the mid-7th century. Many people chose this religion.
In the 11th century the Arab tribes of Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym were installed between Tunisia and eastern Algeria (Constantois). The famous mathematicianFibonacci (1170—1250) lived in Algeria as a teenager. This is where he learned the Hindu-Arabic number system and realized it was simpler to use. In the 1500s and 1700s the Spanish Empireruled a lot of Algeria. Algeria was made part of the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Pirates worked from the Barbary Coast. They took people to sell as slaves.
France ruled Algeria starting in 1830. In 1954, the National Liberation Front (Front de Libération Nationale or FLN) wanted freedom from France. They fought a war. It became independent from France in July 5, 1962. In 1963 Ahmed Ben Bella became the first President of Algeria.
The Algerian Civil War started in 1991. It ended in 2002. After many people protested, like in TunisiaEgypt, and Libya, the government stopped the state of emergency on 24 February 2011.

Geography[change | change source]

A large part of southern Algeria is the Sahara Desert. The Aures and Nememcha mountain ranges are in the north. The highest point is Mount Tahat (3,003 m).

Languages[change | change source]

Official languages are Arabic and BerberFrench is widely spoken too.

Population[change | change source]

Algeria's population is about 39.5 million people. There are over 40 cities with more than 100,000 people.

Divisions[change | change source]

There are 48 provinces (since 1983) in Algeria, they are:

[/ltr]
AdrarChlefLaghouatOum el BouaghiBatnaBejaaaBiskraBecharBlida10 Bouira11 Tamanghasset12 Tebessa13 Tlemcen14 Tiaret15 Tizi Ouzou16 Algiers17 Djelfa18 Jijel19 Setif20 Saïda21 Skikda22 Sidi Bel Abbes23 Annaba24 Guelma25 Constantine26 Medea27 Mostaganem28 M'Sila29 Mascara30 Ouargla31 Oran32 El Bayadh33 Illizi34 Bordj Bou Arréridj35 Boumerdès36 El Tarf37 Tindouf38 Tissemsilt39 El Oued40 Khenchela41 Souk Ahras42 Tipasa43 Mila44 Ain Defla45 Naama46 Ain Temouchent47 Ghardaia48 Relizane
[size][ltr]

UNESCO World Heritage Sites[change | change source]

There are several UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Algeria[12] including Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad, the first capital of theHammadid empire; Tipasa, a Phoenician and later Roman town; and Djémila and Timgad, both Roman ruins; M'Zab Valley, a limestone valley containing a large urbanized oasis; also the Casbah of Algiers is an important citadel. The only natural World Heritage Sites is the Tassili n'Ajjer, a mountain range.

References[change | change source]

[/ltr][/size]
[list=references]
[*]Jump up↑ (28 November 1996). Constitution of Algeria, Art. 11 (in Arabic).Office of President of Algeria. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
[*]Jump up↑ (28 November 1996). Constitution of Algeria Art. 11. Office of President of Algeria. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
[*]Jump up↑ (28 November 1996). Constitution of Algeria Art. 3. Office of President of Algeria. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
[*]Jump up↑ Fisk, Robert (24 January 2016). "Is Algeria’s military making its move on ageing President Bouteflika?". Independent. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
[*]Jump up↑ Staff (2010) (PDF format; requires Adobe Reader). Population and HIV/AIDS 2010. Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social AffairsISBN 978-92-1-151474-2. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
[*]↑ Jump up to:6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Database (September 2011). "5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects"World Economic Outlook DatabaseInternational Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
[*]Jump up↑ Staff (undated). "Distribution of Family Income – Gini Index"The World FactbookCentral Intelligence Agency.Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
[*]Jump up↑ "Human Development Report 2011. Human Development Index Trends". United Nations. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
[*]Jump up↑ Staff (10 April 2010). "Présentation de l'Algérie" (["Presentation of Algeria"]) (in French). French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
[*]Jump up↑ "L'Algérie crée une académie de la langue amazigh" (in French).
[*]Jump up↑ "La mondialisation, une chance pour la francophonie" (in French).
[*]Jump up↑ UNESCO. "UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Retrieved 25 September 2011.
[/list]

[list=references]
[*]Jump up↑ In Algeria, Tamazight has been constitutionally recognized as a national language. The Algerian government recognizes that the varieties of Berber languages in Algeria are national and regional languages which must be presereved. Algeria's official name in Berber is as follows:

Tagduda Tamegdayt Taɣerfant tazzayrit;

[/list]
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Do you Know Algeria ?    الجمعة نوفمبر 11, 2016 10:47 am

شكرا  ... القادم  اعظم    جزاك الله  خيرا 

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